1. SMILE DESIGNING
For correction of uneven gum margins, excessive gingival display, or uneven teeth alignment.correction of gums as well as teeth followed by crown or veneer placement.
2. CROWN LENGTHENING PROCEDURES
To increase the height of the tooth crown by cutting the gums or and bone surrounding the tooth. This enables the increased tooth height to receive a full crown. Generally more height is required for a full ceramic or porcelain fused to metal crowns.
3. TECHNIQUES TO INCREASE THE WIDTH OF THE ATTACHED GINGIVA
Apically displaced flap, free gingival graft, connective tissue graft harvested from the palate and sutured on the recipeint site
4. ROOT COVERAGE PROCEDURES
For covering the exposed tooh surfcace due to gum recession. Pt generally complans of sensitive teeth, difficulty in brushing and unpleasant appearance.fgg, ctg, pedicle grafts, coronally advanced flaps, double papilla flap.
GINGIVAL (GUM) DEPIGMENTATION
The normal color of healthy gums is variable, ranging from pale pink to a deep bluish purple Gingival(Gum) hyperpigmentation is increased pigmentation in the form of brown-black spots, streaks or thick bands on the attached gingiva. The most common cause is physiologic or racial, due to excessive melanin deposition by melanocytes, which are present in the superficial layers of the gums. It is a common esthetic concern, which is aggravated in patients with a gummy smile or excessive gingival display.